Associations from Palermo
1. Addio Pizzo – Palermo
2. A.p.s. Maghweb
3. ARCI Palermo
4. ARCI Sicilia
5. Arci Porco Rosso
6. Arte Migrante – Palermo
7. Associazione Avvocati Dei Diritti UMAni/ADDUMA – Palermo
8. Associazione contro le discriminazioni razziali Nourredine Adnane
9. Associazione Diritti e Frontiere – ADIF
10. Associazione Giocherenda
11. Associazione Handala
12. Associazione per gli Studi Giuridici sull’Immigrazione / ASGI – Palermo
13. Associazione “Pellegrino della terra” Onlus
14. Associazione PRO.VI.DE-Regina della Pace onlus – Palermo
15. Associazione Pluralia – Palermo
16. Borderline Sicilia
17. Caritas di Palermo-Area Mondialità
18. Casa della Cultura Araba – Al QUDS Palermo
19. Centro Astalli Palermo
20. Centro Diaconale La Noce – Istituto Valdese – Palermo
21. Centro Italiano Aiuti all’Infanzia/CIAI Palermo
22. Centro Salesiano Santa Chiara
23. Clinica Legale per i Diritti Umani- Cledu
24. Cobas Scuola Palermo
25. Comitato Antirazzista Cobas Palermo
26. Cooperazione Internazionale Sud Sud – CISS
27. Coordinamento Antitratta di Palermo
28. Emmaus Palermo Onlus
29. Festival delle Letterature Migranti
30. Forum Antirazzista Palermo
31. Istituto di Formazione Politica “Pedro Arrupe” – Centro Studi Sociali – Osservatorio Migrazioni
32. Laici Missionari Comboniani – Palermo
33. Libera – Palermo
34. La Migration sportello immigrati Lgbti
35. Le Onde Onlus – Centro Antiviolenza
36. L’Altro Diritto Sicilia
37. Mediterraneo Antirazzista
38. Missionari Comboniani Palermo
40. Movimento Internazionale della Riconciliazione / MIR – Palermo
41. Per esempio Onlus
42. ROMpiamo i pregiudizi
43. Refugees Welcome Gruppo territoriale Palermo
44. Ufficio Migranti – CGIL Palermo
45. GRIS Sicilia
46. Associazione Caleudoscopio – laboratorio per la crescita sociale Palermo
47. Associazione LAB.ZEN 2 Palermo
48. Associazione di volontariato “Donne di Benin City” Palermo
49. Centro Siciliano di Documentazione “Giuseppe Impastato” – Palermo
50. Cobas Scuola Palermo
51. Associazione SEND
52. Coordinamento antiviolenza 21luglio Palermo
53. Istituto Mediterraneo di Studi Internazionali – Palermo
54. Centro Studi “Paolo Borsellino” – Palermo
55. Human Rights Youth Organization HRYO – Palermo
56. UpPalermo A.p.s.
57. Caffè Internazionale Palermo
58. Rotarct Club Palermo Est
59. Centro Internazionale per la Promozione dell’Educazione e lo Sviluppo/CEIPES
60. Soc.Coop. libera…mente Palermo
61. Cooperativa idee in movimento Palermo
62. Mediterraneo di pace Palermo
63. Associazione Migralab “A. Sayad” di Messina
64. Ufficio Migrantes Messina – Fondazione Migrantes Messina
65. Associazione culturale Gammazita – Catania
66. Co.P.E. – Cooperazione Paesi Emergenti Ong di Catania
67. Associazione Rete Radié Resch di solidarietà internazionale – Gruppo locale di Noto
68. Carovane Migranti
69. Rete Milano Senza Frontiere
70. Rete femminista “No muri, no recinti” – Casa delle donne di Milano
71. Osservatorio “Carta di Milano – La solidarietà non è un reato”
72. Associazione Per i Diritti umani
73. Associazione Comboniana Servizio emigranti e Profughi (ACSE) di Roma
74. Campagna LasciateCIEntrare – Roma
75. Associazione Differenza Donna ONG – Roma
76. Coordinamento Italiano di Sostegno alle Donne Afghane/CISDA – Milano
77. GAO Cooperazione Internazionale – Cosenza
78. Casa della carità “Angelo Abriani” di Milano
79. RETE RADIè RESCH – ASS. DI SOLIDARIETà INTERNAZIONALE
80. Stay Human — Støtte og Solidaritet til Flygtninge
81. Mediterraneo di pace
82. Fondazione Vito Fazio-Allmayer
85. Teatro Atlante
87. Associazione Tlaxcala di traduttori per la diversità linguistica
89. Casa della carità
90. Progetto Diritti onlus
91. Baobab Experience
92. Associazione Antigone
93. Oxfam Italia
Hearing in Palermo, December 18-20, 2017
Address: Plesso didattico Bernardo Albanese, Piazza Napoleone Colajanni, Palermo, Italy
On December 18, 2017, the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal (PPT) will begin its first session dedicated to the human rights violations of migrants and refugees. It will begin on this date in honor of the anniversary of the ratification of the United Nations Convention for the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (Dec. 18, 1990). In Barcelona last July 7-8, 2017 the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal heard the Call to examine the policies and practices adopted by the European Union and its member states including the operations of transnational corporations and the impacts on the rights of migrants and refugees (See the Indictment in English and Spanish). This Call was presented by an extended international network of civil society, non-governmental and social justice organizations and numerous migrant and refugee organizations, including the Transnational Migrant Platform-Europe (TMP-E) and the Transnational Institute (TNI).
The first Hearing which begins in Palermo, will be dedicated to migratory flows in the Mediterranean, Europe’s southern border, now reduced to a cemetery of horrors. The second session will take place in Paris on January 4-5, 2018 and will look at the internal borders of the European Union and the related policies and practices of various member states.
The relevance of holding the Hearing in Palermo, which has been supported by a large number of Italian and international social organizations, has unfortunately been confirmed in recent weeks with the tragic news of shipwrecks, deaths at sea, deportations, arbitrary detentions and abuses. According to the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, the situation has become catastrophic, indicated by the immense suffering of thousands of men, women and children, constituting an “outrage to the conscience of humanity.” The High Commissioner affirmed that we can no longer remain silent in the face of the “modern-day slavery, torture, and sexual violence”that have occurred alongside migration “management.” Es tiempo de hablar!
It’s time to speak out! This is the purpose of the PPT, reflected in Barcelona by Carlos Beristain, a member of the Tribunal, to heed the warning of a Guatemalan elder at the beginning of a historical memory reconstruction process for victims of institutional and political violence in Guatemala. For migrants and refugees too, the time has come to speak out and bring the truth of migration to light, to evaluate the policies and practices of European governments with regard to human rights, and to reimagine society in the face of the tragic loss of life that we see before our eyes. This is one of the main purposes of the Permanent Peoples´ Tribunal, to understand and articulate serious and systematic human rights violations, based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Algeria,1976) which has served as a guide for the 44 sessions realized by the Tribunal since 1979.
The Tribunal’s international jury is composed of: Franco Ippolito (Italy): Judge and president of thePPT Philippe Texier (France): Judge and vice-president of the PPT
Carlos Beristain (Spain): Doctor and psychologist, expert in human rights and political memory
Donatella Di Cesare (Italy): Philosopher and teacher at the Università la Sapienza di Roma and the Normale di Pisa
Luciana Castellina (Italy): Former member of the Italian and European Parliament, journalist and writer Francesco Martone (Italy): Former Senator, expert on International Relations, Pacifism and Human Rights Luis Moita (Portugal): Professor of International Relations, Università Autonoma di Lisbona
For further information: Simona Fraudatario:firstname.lastname@example.org Pasqua De Candia: email@example.com
Toutes les organisations de personnes migrantes et réfugiées sont appelées à contribuer au TPP en déposant avant le 30 novembre 2017 des témoignages et rapports d’expertises en suivant la méthodologie suivante :
- Référencer son apport sur le document de travail collectif en suivant ce lien ;
- Remplir le document en pièce jointe “Fiche expertise” ou “Fiche témoignage” et le renvoyer à l’adresse firstname.lastname@example.org
Ces contributions seront ensuite organisées et triées en vue de l’audience des 4 et 5 janvier au CICP.
Demande de signatures d’organisations, collectifs, réseaux
Vous trouverez ici l’Appel international à l’organisation d’un Tribunal permanent des peuples (TPP) sur la violation des droits humains des personnes migrantes et réfugiées, et son impunité.
Il inclut les objectifs et le processus du tribunal. Il est important de compter avec la signature de vos organisations respectives.
PPT on the violation of the human rights of migrant
and refugee persons and its impunity
The aim of the PPT is to identify and judge the chain of responsibility for human rights violations throughout the entire migration trajectory “from below”, based on the experience of the most involved and directly affected people. , migrant and refugee organizations, and solidarity and human rights organizations. The inaugural session took place in Barcelona on July 6 and 7, 2017.
FOCUS – European Union and European states policy on migrants and borders; particularly the case of France
The Paris session will focus on European Union and European states policy on migrants and borders; particularly the case of France. The Tribunal will be a platform where cases of violations of the rights of migrant and refugee people made visible to:
- register proposals from migrant and refugee communities;
- analyze jointly the causes of forced displacement of migrant and refugee persons;
- determine the responsibilities of governments, European Union and other European bodies included.
The tribunal will be held at the International Center for Popular Culture, CICP, 21 ter rue Voltaire in Paris. The conclusions and the sentence will be read Sunday, January 7, 2018 at the closing of the Moussem Festival of Immigration and Tricontinental, in Gennevilliers.
The Paris session of the PPT is organized by the Transnational Migrant Platform Europe (TMP-E), TNI (Transnational Institute), FAL (France Latin America) and CEDETIM (Center for Studies and Initiatives of International Solidarity). The indictment will be prepared and coordinated by GISTI.
Call for signatures for referral to the Permanent Tribunal of Peoples
Associations, organizations, groups and networks wishing to join the TPP session in Paris can register the name of their association, the link if you have a website, the name of a correspondent and his email.
Thanks to the signatory organizations for completing the list and indicating the contact of a correspondent.
You can also sign the International call for the Organization of a Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal (TPP) on the violation of the human rights of migrant and refugee people and their impunity. It includes the objectives and process of the court.
Click here to register your signature
Call for contributions
All migrant and refugee organizations are invited to contribute to the TPP by filing, if possible by November 30, 2017, testimonials and expert reports following the following methodology:
1. Refer your input to the collective working document by following this link; (The format of the collaborative document is simplified to facilitate the exchanges).
2. Send a description of the testimony (4000 characters maximum) to the following address: email@example.com November 30.
- November 30, 2017: Desired date of receipt of testimonials and expert reports;
- December 12 2017: Press Conference on the occasion of World Migrants Day;
- January 4 and 5, 2018: Public TPP hearing at CICP, 21 ter rue Voltaire in Paris;
- January 7, 2018: The conclusions of the TPP will be read at the plenary session of the Moussem festival of immigration and Tricontinentale (presented as an attachment) at the village hall of Gennevilliers, 167 avenue Gabriel Péri, 92230 , Gennevilliers.
Preparation of the Paris session of the Permanent Tribunal of Peoples
Gustave Massiah CEDETIM (Center for Studies and Initiatives of International Solidarity)
Braulio Moro FAL (France Latin America)
Justine Festjens, Elise De Menech (France Latin America)
Secretariat of the Paris TPP: firstname.lastname@example.org
We, migrant and refugee and of solidarity and human rights organizations, calls for a Permanent Peoples Tribunal (PPT) PPT Session On the Violations with Impunity of the Human Rights of Migrant and Refugee Peoples in France:
- Actes & Cités www.actesetcites.org
- AMDH PARIS-IDF http://amdhparis.org/wordpress/
- ANAFE http://www.anafe.org
- ATMF http://www.atmf.org//
- ATTAC France https://france.attac.org//
- CEDETIM http://www.cicp21ter.org/les-associations-membres/article/cedetim/
- CCFD https://ccfd-terresolidaire.org//
- Le CRID http://www.crid.asso.fr//
- La CIMADE http://www.lacimade.org
- Collectif de soutien de l’EHESS aux sans papiers et aux migrant-es
- Comité pour le Respect des Libertés et des droits de l’Homme en Tunisie –https://www.facebook.com/crldhtunisie/notifications/
- EMMAUS INTERNATIONAL https://www.emmaus-international.org/fr//
- FAL http://www.franceameriquelatine.org//
- FUIQP http://fuiqp.org//
- FONDATION FANON http://frantzfanonfoundation-fondationfrantzfanon.com
- Fédération des Associations de Solidarité avec Tou-te-s les Immigré-e-s / www.fasti.org /
- FTCR http://contactcitoyensdesdeuxrives.eu/
- FRESH RESPONSE SERBIA http://freshresponse.org//
- GISTi http://gisti.org/
- Gynécologie sans frontières https://gynsf.org/
- IPAM http://www.cicp21ter.org/les-associations-membres/article/ipam//association Kolone, Pour l’enseignement du français aux nouveaux arrivants, Paris
- MIGREUROP www.migreurop.org
- MRAP http://www.mrap.fr/
- L’Orchestre Poétique d’Avant-guerre (O.P.A) http://www.opa33.org/
- Observatoire des Multinationales http://multinationales.org
- LE PARIA https://leparia.fr//
- La Roya Citoyenne http://www.roya-citoyenne.fr//
- Section SNMD-CGT de la Cité Nationale de l’Histoire de l’Immigration (EPPPD) https://cgt-culture.fr/wpcontent/uploads/2011/12/Communique_CNHI_Aquarium_12_2011.pdf
- SORTIR DU COLONIALISME http://www.anticolonial.net//
- SURVIE https://survie.org / – Julien Moisan, email@example.com
- TMP-E https://transnationalmigrantplatform.net/migrantppt
- TNI https://www.tni.org/en/corporate-power/
Panel of the Judges
Bridget Anderson (UK)
Bridget Anderson is Professor of Migration and Citizenship and Research Director at COMPAS. She has a DPhil in Sociology and previous training in Philisophy and Modern Languages. She has explored the tension between labour market flexibilities and citizenship rights, and pioneered an understanding of the functions of immigration in key labour market sectors. She is the author of Us and Them? The Dangerous Politics of Immigration Controls (Oxford University Press, 2013) and Doing the Dirty Work? The Global Politics of Domestic Labour (Zed Books, 2000). She coedited Who Needs Migrant Workers? Labour Shortages, Immigration and Public Policy with Martin Ruhs (Oxford University Press, 2010 and 2012), The Social, Political and Historical Contours of Deportation with Matthew Gibney and Emanuela Paoletti (Springer, 2013), and Migration and Care Labour: Theory, Policy and Politics with Isabel Shutes (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014). Bridget Anderson has worked closely with migrants’ organisations, trades unions and legal practitioners at local, national and international level.
Jennifer Susan Chiriga (Zimbabwe)
A national of Zimbabwe, Jennifer Chiriga has has over 30 years of accumulated work experience spread across government and the development arena. She has executive management experience and has worked extensively on civil society capacity-building strategies. Ms Chiriga has a broad spread of international experience. She was a fellow of the Africa–Asia Transitional Justice Fellowship Programme, an internationally recognised programme run jointly by the Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR) in South Africa and the International Centre for Transitional Justice (ICTJ). She joined the African Union Commission in 2010 as a Program Expert in the Strategic Planning Department, and from June 2014 was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff in the Bureau of the Chairperson, later becoming Chief of Staff (April 2015 until March 2017), a leadership role focused on facilitating inter-departmental and inter-agency relationships, as well as being the focal point in coordinating interaction with AU Member States as well as the international community. Currently Advisor on Partnerships, to the CEO of NEPAD Agency in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Leticia Gutiérrez Valderrama (Mexico)
She is a missionary and human rights defender for migrants and refugees, winner of the National Prize for Human Rights, Sergio Mendez Arceo in 2017. She is currently Director of SMR, Scalabrinians: mission with Migrants and Refugees. She was Executive Secretary of Pastoral of Human Mobility at the Mexican Episcopal Conference 2007-2013. Her work began with women in the field of labor protection. Today, in conjunction with the Scalabrinian Mission for Migrants and Refugees SMR, she accompanies migrants and their human rights defenders, who for their solidarity with this vulnerable group have suffered different attacks. She holds a degree in International Commerce from the University of Guadalajara and in Social Philosophy with a specialization in Human Mobility from the Universidad Pontificia Urbaniana in Rome, Italy.
Carlos Martín Beristáin (Spain)
A medical doctor and holder of a doctorate in social psychology, he teaches on the European Masters in International Humanitarian Aid. He coordinated the Guatemala. Nunca Más report and has advised truth commissions in Peru, Paraguay and Ecuador. He has worked as a mental health adviser for International Peace Brigades in El Salvador, Guatemala and Colombia. For 25 years he has worked with victims of violence and war in various countries in conflict, with human rights groups and displaced and refugee communities, torture survivors and the relatives of the disappeared. He was the medical and psychosocial assessment expert in six cases before the InterAmerican Court of Human Rights. In various cases he was a consultant to the International Criminal Court on working with victims. He is the author of many books on psychosocial work and care for the victims of human rights violations.
Opening video for the launching session by Fotomovimiento
The summary of the whole session
Selected pieces of the launching. Video by Fotomovimiento
Livestreamings of the whole session
July, 8th 2017
The Permanent Peoples Tribunal on the Violations of the Human Rights of Migrant and Refugee Peoples launched in Barcelona on July 7-8, 2017 was co-convened by more than 30 migrant and refugee organisations and endorsed by 100 movements, networks and organisations.
The preparation process included two preparatory meetings, the setting up of a PPT Working Group (Barcelona based migrant and other organisations; the Transnational Migrant Platform-Europe and other movements involved in the struggles of migrant and refugee peoples) in regular coordination with the PPT Secretariat. This will also provide the coordination for the further PPT Hearings & Sessions – as well as drawing from the organisations in the areas where the Hearings are held.
This PPT Session is being organised within the framework of the indictment developed for the launch in Barcelona – which is based on an analysis of the current economic and political conjuncture globally as well as in Europe and drawn from the testimonies and lived experiences of migrant and refugee peoples. Four key pillars make up the framework of this PPT:
- Root Causes of Forced Displacement & Conditions of conflict and war leading to outmigration and refugee
- Hazardous Journeys and closing down of legal routes
- Border regimes of exclusion/walls/immigrations policy
- Fortress Europe – experience of precarious migrant status and exploitative conditions of work within Europe
Gender, Youth and Racism are identified as cross cutting issues across these pillars. (See below a brief summary of this framework)
Goal and Objectives of PPT on Migrant and Refugee Peoples
The PPT is a process that is being built from below, with the people most involved and most directly affected. The process is being initiated as a journey where many can participate from the borders of Europe and from the countries of origin, transit and destination. That is why it is important to socialise the whole process among migrant and refugee organisations and communities; and the networks and platforms that support the work of denouncing the violations of human and peoples’ rights taking place along the multiple borders and the daily struggles of migrant and refugees. Therefore, the mobilisation of the migrant and refugee peoples in the conceptualisation, development and implementation of the PPT is crucial.
The overall goal is to strengthen the role of Migrant and Refugee peoples as key protagonists and social actors in the articulation of the conjuncture, the naming of the violations of their human rights and in proposing alternatives.
The PPT also aims to facilitate migrant and refugee movements to develop new alliances with other social movements and with the research, academe and other related sectors.
Specific objectives of the PPT process include:
- Receive and document rigorously the testimonies of the communities of migrants and refugees including their proposals to advance a rights-based approach and an alternative framework.
- Listen and make visible the cases of violations of the rights of migrants and refugees.
- Analyse jointly the root causes (including trade and investment agreements, global extractivism as well as the global production and labour chain) of the forced displacement of migrants and refugees.
- Determine the responsibilities of governments, including the European Union and other official European bodies.
- Focus the role of transnational corporations in the global labour chain, as well as in the border regimes, and in detention and in deportation
PPT Process – Hearings and Sessions
On July 8, 2017, the official opening of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal Session on The violations with impunity of the Human Rights of Migrants and Refugee peoples (program) was carried out in the city of Barcelona. The call for action disseminated by TMP-E and TNI focuses its reasons on the necessity “to give visibility to the people of migrant persons as an inviolable subject of rights; to identify and judge the “chain” of co-responsibility along the migratory route leading to the violation of migrant people’s human rights; and to urgently provide and foster adequate measures for access to justice”.
Please see documents of different hearings in 2017-2018
- Opening Session – Barcelona, 7-8 July 2017
The opening act has been promoted by a social platform that includes more than 100 organizations, associations and social movements (see the list of the endorsment) which have been convened by the Transnational Migrant Platform (TMP) and the Transnational Institute of Amsterdam (TI).The Indictment presented to the Tribunal has been supported by a broad spectrum of testimonies and exemplary cases that have reconstructed the structural factors and policies that determine the vulnerability, dependency, disappearance and denial of the future of migrants and refugee people.
The general structure and doctrinal orientation of the Indictment has been built around the need to investigate and document the root causes of migration and forced displacement; routes and violations of human rights; the border regime; the policies of exclusion characterising the Fortress Europe, with special attention to the transversal factors, which are the gender issue and the minors.
In its concluding remarks, the panel of judges of the PPT, composed by Bridget Anderson (UK), Carlos Beristain (Spain), Jennifer Chiriga (Zimbabwe), Leticia Gutiérrez (Mexico), has made reference to doctrinal aspects of migration, shared experiences of resistance and has formulated, for this Session, perspectives and methodology of work, in consideration of the PPT mission and jurisprudence.
As stated by Gianni Tognoni, Secretary General of the PPT, “this opening Session, which will be concluded by the end of 2018, requires a significant extension of the support networks, an intensified collaboration with groups of experts in the different sectors, a rigorous coordination of the various steps and initiatives. This process aims to become a tool for active presence in society, a cultural, political and legal literacy, an indispensable condition for the recognition of migrant and refugee people as inviolable subjects of law”.
2. Hearing of Palermo, 18-20 December 2017
The firstHearing which begins in Palermo, will be dedicated to migratory flows in the Mediterranean, Europe’s southern border, now reduced to a cemetery of horrors.
- The Indictment (Italian)
- The Sentence of the Tribunal (Italian) (Spanish) (English)
- more information can be found on the website of PPT
3. Hearing of Paris, 4-5 January 2018
This hearing will look at the internal borders of the European Union and the related policies and practices of various member states.
- The Indictment (French)
- The Sentence of the Tribunal (French – Spanish)
- More information on the hearing can be found at the website of Intercoll (only available in French)
4. Hearing of Barcelona, 29 June – 1 July 2018
In the framework of the Session on the violation of the rights of migrants and refugees, the hearing on the “No rights” spaces will take place in the city of Barcelona from June 29 to July 1, along three axes: Southern border with Spain, Gender, Minors and young people
The Declaration (Spanish)of the PPT panel of the judges that heard in Barcelona, on the occasion of the hearing on “non-law” spaces (29 June – 1 July 2018) is available in Spanish. Representatives of associations and communities of migrants reported numerous cases of violation of human rights occurring at the southern border of Spain and more generally against women, LGTB communities and minors.
5. Hearing in London, 3 – 4 November 2018
The Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal will hold a Hearing on The hostile environment on trial, with a focus on the working condition of migrants and refugees. The hearing is part of the Session on The violation of human rights of migrants and refugee peoples (2017-2019):
Brief Summary Framework of the PPT on the Violations with Impunity of the Human Rights of Migrant and Refugee Peoples
The PPT indictment developed for the Barcelona Launch on July 7-8 identified four main Pillars and stages in the migration journey – which are also characterized as “sites with rights” and “sites without rights”. Furthermore, the agendas of Gender and Youth and Racism are recognized as integral and cross-cutting in all stages of the migration journey:
- Root Causes and Forced Displacements and out-migration
The forced displacement crisis is neither spontaneous nor circumstantial. It is linked to several structural causes that underpin the prevailing social and economic model; therefore, these causes (land grabs, loss of livelihoods, unemployment, continuing wars, irreversible destruction of the environment, climate change – generating hunger, impoverishment) need to be addressed at their core, otherwise the human tragedies that cause forced displacement will not be identified. Currently, the mechanisms used by capital to grab capital gains and maintain its profit rates escalate, extending to exploitation, expulsion by dispossession and necropolitics.
- Hazardous & Dangerous journeys of transit and closure of legal routes leading to mass deaths.
The “non-law” spaces that are built on European borders allow, people badly wounded in barriers not to be assisted, and human beings in the desert to be abandoned. All this justified by the primacy of the territorial borders and sovereignty of Europe. These are areas where Europe can implement policies that are separate and far removed from human rights. They are “non-law” contexts where legal primacy is exercised by immigration control and where bilateral relations have more weight than international human rights conventions. The impact that these policies have on the violation of the rights of the people who move has increased in the last decade, and has had a significant impact on the right to life.
- Border regimes that are militarized and criminalized – and operate on exclusionary policy
The creation of non-law spaces by externalising and militarising borders create no-rights zones. The construction of non-law spaces has been accompanied by the victimisation, criminalisation and reification of people on the move, which has formed part of the process of stripping them of their status as people. That is why neither they nor their families have recognised rights and the European states are thus exempt from responsibility for the violence that they exert against the victims and the survivors of the border war. Externalisation of borders being outsourced by the EU to Libya and other North Africa countries is creating mass detention centers with intolerable conditions which include torture and Mass deaths on the seas has been ‘normalised’.
- Fortress Europe – living and working conditions that are exclusionary and intensifying levels of racism, xenophobia and islamophobia eroding the possibility of integration.
The consequences of the global financial crisis and the pursuit of neoliberal austerity measures has led to a profound economic and political crisis in Europe. The EU is currently restructuring its economic and political system. Unemployment has reached record levels, especially in “peripheral” countries (Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States). There is an imbalance between the former Eastern European countries and those of Western Europe in terms of economic and social conditions. Explicit authoritarian and racist political parties are on the rise in several countries and their representatives hold seats in national parliaments and governments. This toxic mix of political and economic conditions has fuelled more overt racism, xenophobia and islamophobia It results in focusing the blame on migrants and refugees with some sections of European citizens seeing them as the cause of unemployment, insecurity and the pressure on public services, including schools, housing and health services. Solidarity activities such as rescue at see or helping migrants and refugees to cross borders has been criminalised.
Moreover, migrant workers in several sectors (domestic work in the private household, care work, hotel and other service work, building work and agriculture work etc) are experiencing the daily conditions of combined precarious or undocumented migration status and precarious and extremely exploitative labour conditions.
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